Vivo Clinical Testing offers both GLP (Good Laboratory Practice) and GCP (Good Clinical Practice) compliant testing to support the needs of your project.

GLPs and GCPs, which are US government standards that must be met by laboratories generating data for FDA, are frequently misunderstood. The goal of this page is to provide a framework for understanding the "basics" of GLP and GCP regulations.


Good Clinical Practices are a set of standards that are pertinent to clinical testing data submissions to the FDA. GCPs are designed to protect the rights, safety, and well-being of study subjects during their partipation in clinical trials and the following elements are some of the essential foundations of GCP standards:

IRB Submission

For any given GCP clinical trial, an Institutional Review Board (IRB) reviews the trial-related documents prepared by Vivo Clinical Testing to ensure that the rights and safety of study subjects are maintained throughout the course of their particpation in testing. The IRB reviews study protocols, protocol amendments, written informed consent forms, subject recruitment advertisements, available safety information or nonclinical data, and the qualifications of the Principal Investigator prior to approving of the study design. Clinical studies are approved by the IRB prior to subject recruitment.

Informed Consent

Before being enrolled in a clinical study, participants must review an informed consent document that notifies them of the purpose of the trial, their responsibilites as a subject (should they choose to participate), the reasonably foreseeable risks and benefits to the subject, etc. Signed written informed consent is obtained from each study subject for each clinical study they choose to participate in.

Safety Reporting

In the interest of monitoring and maintaining the safety of clinical trials, Vivo Clinical Testing documents each adverse event reported by study subjects throughout the course of clinical studies and appropriately reports serious adverse events to Study Sponsors and the overseeing IRB.

Medical Care of Study Subjects

During and following a subject's participation in a clinical trial, Vivo ensures that adequate medical care is provided to study subjects for any adverse event related to their participation in the trial.


Good Laboratory Practices are a set of standards that are pertinent to nonclinical data submissions to the FDA. The following elements are some of the essential foundations of GLP standards:

Appropriate Facility

Separation between work areas, test systems, and other such things are stipulated by the GLPs. The purpose of the facility rules is to ensure that interference between test articles and test systems does not occur, and also to ensure that the laboratory is generally well organized.

Clear Roles

For a given GLP study, five main characters must be identified. The Study Director is the person who is responsible for running the study, the Study Sponsor is the person who requests the testing, the Quality Assurance Unit is the person (or group of people) who audit the study and final report, the Archivist is the person who maintains study records, and Management is the person (or group of people) who choose the Study Director and supervise both the Quality Assurance Unit and the Study Director. Everybody involved in a GLP study has various levels of accountability with regard to GLP compliance.

Agreed-Upon Study Protocol

Before a GLP study is run, a full and detailed study protocol is signed by both the Sponsor (the person paying for the study) and the Study Director (the person conducting the study). Changes to the study protocol require a clear record of when, how, and why the study was changed. Changes to and deviations from the protocol are OK, but they must be documented!


Arguably the most important aspect of GLP regulation pertains to record keeping. The GLP regulations are intended to provide the government with a fully auditable study record, allowing them to reconstruct every study done per the GLPs. For that reason, all records and raw data that have to do with GLP studies are maintained for long periods of time. Changes to raw data are made in such a way so as not to obscure the original entry. Additionally, the person who entered the data must be identified. Lastly, a safe archive of data must be maintained. The archive is typically fire and theft resistant.


One critical element of GLP is the concept of an SOP, or Standard Operating Procedure. SOPs are simply documents that describe how a particular scientific task is performed when it is outside of the scope of the signed GLP study protocol. For example, Microchem Laboratory maintains SOPs on everything from media preparation to equipment maintenance.

Calibrated Instrumentation

Accuracy of instruments is critical to experimental accuracy. Thus, the GLPs stipulate calibration requirements for all data generating equipment. For example, Vivo Clinical Testing regularly calibrates thermometers, balances, and pipettes.

Quality of Media and Reagents

All media and reagents used for GLP studies must undergo documented quality testing. For example, agar used for studies at Vivo Clinical Testing is analyzed for both growth promotion of target microorganisms and sterility.

Training Records for Study Personnel

Obviously, it's important for the people conducting a study to be educated, trained, and skilled with respect to the study at hand. As such, GLPs stipulate extensive training records be kept for all staff involved in GLP studies. One very unique aspect of Vivo Clinical Testing is the skill and expertise of the staff - all scientific personnel have college degrees in the biological sciences, typically in microbiology proper. In addition, many have years of hands-on industry experience.

Independent Quality Assurance Audit and Review

Another important aspect of a GLP study is the auditing process. GLP regulations require an "independent" audit of all studies to ensure study integrity. Typically, study auditors are employed by the laboratory, but are removed from participation in the study. At Vivo Clinical Testing, GLP studies are audited at least once during the "critical phase," which means during the conduct of the actual study. In addition, study reports are audited to ensure that raw data matches that which is reported, calculations are correct, and so on.

Vivo Clinical Testing Is:

An FDA GLP and GCP-compliant testing organization staffed by skilled, experienced microbiologists and subject recruiters.  Vivo can help speed your project to completion.

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